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Feminist Theology

Traditional theology and women

To know what we are talking about, it is necessary to make a short history. I think it can be said, without being wrong, that the relationship between theology and women, for centuries, has been problematic. Until very recently, women have been denied their status as theological subjects. For almost two thousand years, therefore, they have been passive consumers of theological interpretation and proclamation of faith produced exclusively by males and, for the most part, clergy.

However, the female condition has been object of theological reflection and habitual subject of preaching, and not to meditate on the feminine as a way of being of the human, but to explain such fundamental issues for humanity as the origin of evil, pain and death, associated -as all we know– to original sin and, more specifically, to Eve. Thus, the woman has been considered secularly as agent of satan –guilty Eve who brought evil into the world–, and her body, perceived as impure, has been interpreted as an occasion for sin, an obstacle between God and men, and the cause of the imperfect resemblance between Divinity and women. An example of this conception of women are the words of the theologian Tertullian: "You should always wear mourning, go covered in rags and immerse yourself in penance, in order to redeem the lack of having been the perdition of the human race... Woman, you are the door of the devil It was you who touched the tree of Satan and the first to violate divine law". The language is dated, but clearly reflects the underlying patriarchal misogyny.

Unfortunately, the patriarchal interpretation of women made the biblical tradition provide new arguments for the legitimization of the misogyny that reigned in Greco-Roman culture, the culture in which, precisely, Christian theology arose, which, in some way, was already born misogynist.

The theological-ecclesiastical discourse on women also considered women as defective male, an idea that theology took from Greek philosophy. Due to its defect and its lack of completeness, which made it more prone to evil and succumbing to temptation, a model of guarded woman by men, dependent on them and ultimately incapable of becoming an adult.

On the other hand, motherhood was sublimated as the goal and fulfillment of women and as atonement for their guilt. They were considered, therefore, as bodies destined either for the church –the virgins, whose maternity is considered spiritual–, or for the family –the mothers–, but always passive and receptive. In this context, those who dared to assume an active role – and there always were – were criticized, persecuted and even murdered for being women and not staying in the place assigned to their sex.

This ecclesiastical discourse on women became a fundamental pillar to sustain and reinforce the patriarchal social order in the West, and it can still be traced today in the collective imagination of the feminine. It is true that Christianity did not invent patriarchy, but it is also true that Christian theologies contributed to nourishing and consolidating it for centuries. Why? Perhaps because the Church itself adopted this order in its internal structure, despite the fact that Jesus called women and men to equal discipleship. If one reviews the history of Christianity, one sees that, from very early on, the participation of women in the apostolate, in preaching, in ministries, in teaching and in theology was limited, until they ended up being excluded from such fields. Thus, women and theological creation became incompatible and antagonistic realities.

To justify these restrictions imposed on women, the Church resorted, for centuries, to a theological anthropology and a "theology of women" that still today, in various ways, are still valid in its official teaching. Generally, the same spiritual dignity and the same deep vocation are granted to men and women, but they are attributed an essence different to each one, masculine or feminine. This essentialisation of differences generates different charisms and tasks: it is up to the woman "to make appear that life hidden with Christ in God, which is the essence of our religion", in the words of Father Henry, while the man "rules, can being a priest, teaches”... The distribution of charisms and tasks by sex confined women to the private sphere –whether it be the home or the cloister– and separated them –by divine design– from participating in the spheres of production intellectual, decision-making and power in the Church.

The theologies of women in the 50s, for their part, although they valued women more, continued to consider them a reflection object and they looked for the eternal feminine, without being interrogated by the questions and the living reality of concrete women.

They were “theologies of the genitive”, that is, theologies elaborated around a theme, in this case the Woman, but not from a life experience.

Feminist Theology

Feminist theology is not a theology of the genitive, that is, it is not theology of or about the woman. Nor is it a simple statement de the feminine in theology, nor theology from a gender perspective. And, of course, feminist theology and feminine theology, that is, that elaborated by women, cannot be identified or confused for various reasons: on the one hand, there are male feminist theologians, although they are few; on the other, feminist and feminine theology do not have to coincide in their perspectives and interests; In addition, feminine theology, in the words of the Spanish theologian Mercedes Navarro Puerto, "normally refers to the thought that reinforces a supposed ontological femininity and assumes the existence of the woman and the feminine, instead of assuming women, plural and different, the same as men are usually perceived”.

Feminist theologies appear, therefore, when women constitute themselves as theological subject and they begin to do theology from his experience and with a critical perspective in a double sense: first, regarding the concepts, values, norms, and stereotypes of a patriarchal and excluding society, and second, regarding the consequences of patriarchal theologies in the lives of women, in the Church and in society.

Furthermore, feminist theologies reappropriate religious tradition and creatively reconstruct it from a non-patriarchal framework of interpretation. They want to contribute to a truly universal and ecumenical theological reflection, capable of integrating the different experiences and languages about God without imposing a single discourse and a single experience as normative. As the historian of theology Rosino Gibellini points out, “feminist theology introduces the other half of humanity and of the Church into the hermeneutic circle […], enriching the experience of faith, its formulation and its expressions [.. .]. It does not pretend to be unilateral, but rather to react effectively to the unilateralism of the dominant ecclesial theology and praxis, and it is presented as a contribution to the 'incomplete dimension of theology' [...], with a view to an authentic 'integral theology'” . Feminist theologies, therefore, suppose the creation of a new inclusive and liberating theological paradigm for all humanity, for which they claim the experience and thought of the others different from the wealthy, white and western male, in order to generate new possibilities for all.

Conceptual and social framework of the birth of Christian feminist theology

From a historical point of view, the conceptual and social frame of reference of contemporary feminist theology is constituted by four traditions and one theological-ecclesial event: a) The political discourse and the ideals of the Enlightenment; b) Feminist criticism and the reconstruction of gender paradigms; c) The theology of liberation; d) The ecumenical movement, and e) The Second Vatican Council.

Political discourse and the ideals of the Enlightenment

In the West, the demand for equal rights for women and feminism are born from Enlightenment ideas. Therefore, one can only speak of an articulated, coherent and critical theoretical feminism from the eighteenth century. Since, according to Descartes, the brain had no sex, discrimination against women – which, in the light of reason, was an arbitrary prejudice – should have been combated, allowing women equal access to all spheres of life. which was excluded. But the enlightened universalizing and emancipatory promises did not include women. How did the Enlightenment thinkers manage to dodge their own postulates in order to leave out the demands for women's equality?

Naturalizing the sexes. Thus, it was considered natural, and therefore inevitable, the superiority of the man –which made him suitable for the highest sciences and for political government– and the inferiority of the woman, who qualified her for more secondary and less substantial activities. Biology, therefore, was reinforced as destiny.
However and despite this, enlightened women, in general, defended the egalitarian and emancipatory reason of the Enlightenment.

Enlightenment ideas ended up providing the foundations of the ethical, social and political model of our modern societies, but unfortunately the contradictions of the Enlightenment were also part of its legacy for the future and can still be found in our everyday context.

Feminist criticism and the reconstruction of gender paradigms

Picking up the tradition of the enlightened ancestors, feminist critical theory tries to overcome the current contradictions of culture and society, which in theory affirm the same dignity between the sexes, but in reality do not value women equally or offer them the same opportunities. than to men.

Critical feminist theory is aware that legal equality –still non-existent in most of the world– is essential, but insufficient to generate real equality, which is why it calls for a profound change in values in patriarchal societies. To do this, it questions the patriarchal paradigm and androcentric thought, which, in any culture and society, identify the masculine with the human, the superior, rationality and power, and the feminine with the inferior, the auxiliary, intuition and the passivity.

Critical feminist theory also questions the organizational forms and socioeconomic and political practices that sustain and perpetuate sexual role attributions, because such attributions are cultural and often self-serving. Thus, critical feminist theories try to deconstruct the patriarchal paradigm and social order and replace them with truly inclusive ones that do not establish essentialist dualities or hierarchize the differences between the sexes.

Christian feminist theology uses feminist theory as a tool for analyzing reality and as a source of critical thought capable of dignifying not only women, but all of humanity. She critically appropriates the conceptual tools of feminist criticism and uses them in the theological realm, questioning the aspects of theology that justify male domination and female subordination. But like all authentic theology, it is not limited to being critical, but rather reconstructs and reinterprets the nuclear theological symbols in an equal and inclusive way: God, humanity, man and woman, sin, salvation, creation, etc.

On the other hand, feminism is not a sectorial thought about women, but a critical thought applied to social reality in all its aspects. Feminist theology assumes this universalist vocation of feminism and discovers that feminist ideals and objectives coincide with some fundamental Christian aspirations, since the communion of all humanity without exclusions and, therefore, the reconciled community of men and women is a fundamental dimension. of the Kingdom of God announced by Jesus.

The theologies of liberation

As is well known, liberation theology constituted a new paradigm and a revolution in theological method, a new way of doing theology and of reading reality in a critical-liberating key. It is a theology that, in the words of Gustavo Gutiérrez, "is not limited to thinking about the world, but seeks to position itself as a moment through which the world is transformed". Liberation theologies make use of the social sciences to analyze the mechanisms of oppression and seek alternatives, but, above all, they represent a new hermeneutic where the praxis of liberation is an internal moment of theological knowledge. As is well known, in liberation theology, the poor constitute the socio-theological place par excellence.

However, in its early days, liberation theology did not fully meet women. In the words of Juan José Tamayo: "Christian women, who from the beginning played an important role in the liberating praxis of popular movements and in grassroots Christian groups, were absent in the configuration of the theological method and epistemology, which led the male mark. The experiences of women's marginalization did not enter into the perspective of the new theological work... Only when women were incorporated into theological reflection and participated in the reformulation of faith in a feminist key, did the androcentric character of the already liberating Christian discourse begin to be corrected. pay attention to gender discrimination and the feminization of poverty”. And the theologian Ivone Gebara explains the absence of the “place of women as a theological place” in the theological reflection on liberation: “Their personal and group questions did not exist for theology. Their bodies were manipulated and controlled as if they were the property of others. His search for liberation should be subject to broader, more general searches, that is, to the proposals of those who imposed the laws for social change.

The first to reformulate liberation theology in a feminist key were North American and European theologians, who introduced into their theological work the tools of analysis and the anthropological and political categories of feminism and articulated them with the perspectives opened up by liberation theology. , thus laying the foundations of contemporary feminist theology.

Today Christian feminist theologies, for the most part, present themselves as critical theologies of liberation. They are contextual theologies that start from the real suffering of women and their historical experiences in their struggle for life, analyze the causes of their discrimination and establish actions to eliminate them, proposing an alternative and prophetic vision of the future. Their moral and political ideal is justice for women and they want to contribute, with theological language, to eliminate the systematized and sinful exclusion of women in the socio-economic, political, ecclesial and theological spheres. They demand full recognition of the dignity of women and their full humanity in the image of God, and demand their participation in all spheres of society and churches. Its epistemological place is the concrete and historical commitment in favor of women's liberation. They consider that politics and spirituality are inseparable. They seek a reform of theology, of the Church and of society, a transformation-conversion of people, of institutions and of society in general.

Critical liberation theologies are also self-critical theologies that evaluate and judge different feminist theories and the various conceptions of women's liberation in the feminist movement.

The Ecumenical Movement

The ecumenical movement has been a privileged area to strengthen the ecclesial and theological leadership of women. The establishment of local and international networks has contributed decisively to the advancement and richness of the different feminist theologies, to dialogue and co-creation.

It is impossible to explain in detail here the contributions of the various ecumenical groups to the development of Christian feminist theology, so I will limit myself to highlighting the work of three entities:


  • the Ecumenical Council of Churches, whose commitment to the theological education of Christian women and the creation of women's networks around the world has been instrumental in the emergence of feminist theologies in Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania;

  • the Ecumenical Association of Third World Theologians, which in 1983 created the Women's Commission, aimed at developing a theology of liberation from the perspective of Third World women;

  • and the Ecumenical Forum of Christian Women of Europe, whose goal was to develop a European feminist theology to transform churches and society.

The Second Vatican Council

In the Catholic sphere, finally, the theological and practical innovations introduced by the Second Vatican Council and their reception by Catholic women were decisive for the birth of feminist theology. At the same time, the new ecumenism promoted by the Council allowed Catholics to learn about the possibilities that women from other Christian families had to work in theology and in other spheres and functions of the churches.

In its official documents, the Second Vatican Council rejects all forms of discrimination based on sex (Dogmatic Constitution Gaudium et Spes, n. 29), proclaims equal rights in the world of work (n. 34), of culture ( n. 60) and the family (n. 49), and stresses the importance of women in the various fields of the Church's apostolate Apostolicam Actuositatem, no. 9). But it was not statements of this type that most directly promoted the development of Catholic feminist theology, but rather the gap between theory and practice, the lack of real progress, and even subsequent setbacks in women's participation. women in the life of the Church.

From the Second Vatican Council, many Catholics became aware that, if they themselves did not agree to theological reflection, they would always depend on a doctrine elaborated only by men who, until now, had ignored and excluded them.

Brief history of feminist theologies

As far as the history of feminist theology is concerned, there have been many women who, through the centuries, protested their inferiority and made important contributions to different fields of knowledge, culture or politics, women who feminist historiography is recovering and rescuing from oblivion. Despite the prevailing misogyny, women searched for and found ways to express their creativity, invented ways of life, often clandestinely, and strove to conquer spaces that would allow them to develop their talents beyond their biological destiny. Some even paid with their lives for the occupation of areas prohibited to them. Therefore, it is possible to trace traces of what could be called proto-feminisms, both theoretical and practical. However, one cannot speak of true feminism and incipient feminist theology until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, respectively.

In the mid-19th century, the United States became the center of feminism, due to the birth of the suffrage movement. Suffrage was an important demand, but it was part of a broader struggle through which women sought a more just society, including their own liberation. Before their rights, women began by advocating for abolitionism and, in doing so, became aware of their own oppression. The Seneca Falls convention, organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott in 1848, was the beginning of a whole social movement for the emancipation of women. These women combined political action with theological reflection, which took shape in the publication of The Women's Bible, by Elisabeth Cady Stanton, published in 1895 and 1898. This work was a first step in women's appropriation of their right to critical thinking and creative and liberating speech. They defended that the equality of the sexes in the image of God, translated into social equality, was the original will of God. Therefore, sexism was interpreted as a sin against women and against God, because it distorts the divine will for its creation.

This was born in the 1960s in the United States and in Europe in the form of various theologies that encompass various theological disciplines and use various theological methods or approaches, depending on the different biographical and intellectual trajectories of the authors. Thus, feminist theology, from its beginnings, bears the mark of plurality. However, there are common denominators in these theologians: their inclusive, critical and creative approach, their gender perspective, and that they were all white, middle-class women. In addition, they start from two capital discoveries for theology: first, that what until now had been considered as "the universal human experience" was actually the experience and understanding of men about themselves, the world and God; second, that it is necessary to question the exclusive and excluding identification of God with the man, because, as Mary Daly affirmed, "if God is a man, then the man is God".

Regarding the North American context specifically, feminist theology arose from the confluence of two phenomena: the civil movements of the 1960s and the resurgence of the women's movement known as Third Wave Feminism, factors to which it joined the gradual access of Protestant women, since the mid-19th century, to theological education and ministry.

Interestingly, American Catholics, who had much more difficulty developing a career in their Church, have been more fruitful than Protestants in their theological developments, perhaps for two reasons: 1) the majority of Protestant women who received theological education in the last third of the 20th century, dedicated their efforts to pastoral ministry, and 2) the denial of the capacity of women to be legitimately ordained as priests stimulated theological research by Catholics and fueled their need to analyze the coherence and validity of the theological arguments for this denial.

Despite the difficulties in the respective churches, feminist theology is established today in the North American academic sphere. Among other things, there are a large number of Theology faculties of different denominations, which have been fundamental for the theological education of women and for the development of their professional careers in theology.

Regarding Europe, feminist theological awareness also began to develop from 1960, through the work of several pioneering theologians who addressed issues such as the need to change ecclesiastical laws, sexual morality and human values. They critically analyzed the experience of women, postulated the need for a new terminology, criticized patriarchal ideology and the patriarchalization of God, and investigated the place of women in the Christian tradition.

Beginning in 1975, International Women's Year, interest turned to theological anthropology, eco-feminism, political theology, systematic theology, theological method, and feminist spirituality.

In this period, fundamental associations for the development of feminist theology in Europe were founded as Women and Men in the Church, the European Society of Women Researchers in Theology and the Ecumenical Forum of Christian Women of Europe. All of them hold regular meetings and have publications with their research. Two European Synods of Women have also been held, in 1996 and 2003, very important for meeting, dialogue and the dissemination of feminist theology.

In southern Europe, we must highlight the creation in Spain of the movement Women and Theology, from the Col•lectiu de Dones en l'Esglesia, and of the Association of Spanish Theologians (ATE), which promote study days, annual meetings, courses and publications that have played a fundamental role in spreading feminist theology in Spain. The Feminist School of Theology of Andalusia (EFETA), founded in 2006, marks a milestone in the history of feminist theology, inside and outside Spain, as it is the first online school of feminist theology in the world and, for the moment, the only.

In the current phase of development of European feminist theologies, dialogue with gender studies has become important and is flourishing in many disciplines at the university level. The need for a new pluralism is felt, which implies lessening the dominance of Christian theology and emphasizing dialogue with Jewish, Muslim and other religious researchers. At the same time, European theologians are aware of racism in Europe and the legacy of European imperialism. Thus, the agenda of European feminist theology aims to strengthen a global solidarity between women that respects differences.

In the 1980s, the appearance of the theological voices of women from the margins warned of another danger: that of identifying the particular experience of a group of women with that of women in general. African and African American, Latina and Latin American, Asian, Native American, and indigenous women from other continents have questioned whether white Euro-American women are sufficiently representative of the experience of all women. They consider that the domination of white women is a reflection of the domination of Western white culture over others, and have developed their own theological reflections, opening a new stage in feminist theology, which is enriched by perspectives from other cultural contexts. and is confronted with the complexity of oppressive relations, giving rise to various feminist theologies.

The womanist is Christian feminist theology crafted from the perspective of African-American women. Womanist theologians regard family and community as core values and identify with the struggles of the entire black community against oppression. They feel that they are continuing a long tradition of religious thought of black American women, whose voices they are trying to recover and that goes back to the abolitionists of the 19th century. They want to reframe theology, biblical studies, ethics, the sociology of religion, and ministry from the perspective and experience of black women. While acknowledging their debt to them, they criticize both the sexism of black liberation theologies produced by men, and the racism of feminist theologies of white women. Their concrete experience of oppression becomes the hermeneutic criterion for judging any theology and ethical theory. And although it is a theology in the making, its pioneers are delving into more complex theological issues and are bringing new perspectives to central themes such as Christology or evil, suffering or redemption.

Womanist theology starts from the faith experience of Latina women. For Hispanic women in the United States, ethnic prejudice and economic oppression add to the oppressive experience of sexism. From this perspective, mujerista theologians are those Hispanics who, from their theological reflection, combat this triple oppression and who have made a preferential option for Latina women and their liberation. Mujerista theology is considered a liberating praxis.

Its goal is the training of Latina women, their moral development and their awareness of the value and importance of what they are, think and do. Mujerista theologians value community to the point that their theology is often elaborated communally, in group work sessions.

Latin American feminist theologies emerge from women who joined the base communities and liberation theology, but who, from the 1980s, perceive the absence of a specific contribution of women in theological production liberation and begin to develop critical feminist theologies of liberation from the Latin American perspective. The objective of Latin American feminist theology is, in the words of María Pilar Aquino, "to encourage and accompany the initiatives and processes developed by women in order to transform the structures and theories that deny, limit or prevent full development and integrity and dignity of women in anthropological, political, social and religious terms”.

American feminist theology has dedicated especially to Biblical studies, emphasizing the aspects that escape an androcentric reading. Its theological and hermeneutical place is the poor woman. Theology, thus, remains linked to the praxis of liberation and the commitment to make visible the specificity of the situation and the experiences of poor women. As María Pilar Aquino herself says, historical reality "is the starting point and the arrival point of theology, and both are connected by the principle of transformation".

Asian feminist theologies, also born in the 1980s, have reflected on all areas of Christian theology: Biblical studies, God, Christology, the Church... In the Third World, and to date, Asian women theologians are the ones who have written the most, although his work is the least known of all. Given Asia's religious pluralism and the antiquity of its spiritual traditions, Asian feminist theologians work intensively in the field of interreligious and intercultural dialogue.

They are well aware that Christianity is a newcomer to the multiracial, multicultural and multireligious mosaic of Asian countries, many of which also suffer from the legacy of European, American and Japanese colonialism, strong militarism, exploitation by multinationals, the spread of AIDS and sexual exploitation, all aspects that deeply mark Asian feminist theologies.

In South Korea, for example, among the issues specifically addressed by feminist theologians are: the unification of the two Koreas, trafficking in women, sex tourism, and the demand for justice for Korean women who were forced into prostitution as slaves. sex for the Japanese army in World War II.

In any case, the negative conception of women and their sexuality is present in all Asian cultures and religions and is a common concern of all Asian theologies.

African feminist theologies were born in the late 80s, when a group called   was formedCircle of Committed African Women Theologians. From the beginning, they emphasized the specific social, economic and cultural context from which they speak, irrevocably marked by colonialism, poverty, neo-colonialism and the centuries-old voicelessness of African women in almost all spheres, including the theological. African women have come to the conclusion that their experiences are significantly different from those of other women, so they must break what has hitherto been an enforced silence and speak for themselves. And they insist that this right to speak for themselves is a necessary condition for their own emancipation.

The sources of their theology, understood as liberating praxis, as a commitment to justice, life and freedom in the face of oppression, are the traditions of Christian theology, but to them they add the experience of African women, African cultural history , and religions and their own sources of spirituality. The inculturation of Christianity in the multi-religious and multi-cultural context of Africa is one of the main concerns of African women theologians, along with cultural hermeneutics and biblical hermeneutics. They view community as a gift from God, but are critical of the latent sexism in their cultures and the role the Bible and certain biblical interpretations have played as a source of theologies oppressive to women.

This prophetic reading of the Bible puts them in conflict with their cultural and religious communities at the same time. Other topics of interest to African women theologians are Christology, theological anthropology and ecclesiology. And they draw attention to religion and culture as the facets that have the greatest impact on the lives of African women and in other areas of the life of their social communities.

In recent years, a black and indigenous Latin American feminist theology has also emerged.

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¿Por qué existe el feminismo?

¿Por qué existe el feminismo?

¿Qué propósitos tienen las feministas? ¿Cuál es origen del feminismo? Acércate a conocer este fascinante tema sobre la igualdad de los géneros que hicimos con motivo del 8 de Marzo, día de la mujer. #divulgación #ciencia #políticasocial #CuriosaMente213 Guión: Tessie Solinís Casparius, con asesoría de Mariana Espeleta. Ilustraciones: Sandra Cárdenas. Voz: Javier Lacroix Música: Miguel Solís, Mary Camarena y Jorge Verdín PARA SABER MÁS: Smith, Nicholas D. (1983). "Plato and Aristotle on the Nature of Women". Journal of the History of Philosophy. 21 (4): 467–478. doi:10.1353/hph.1983.0090. "Aristotle: Politics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 1260a11". 27 July 2005. Retrieved 9 October 2013. Witt, Charlotte; Shapiro, Lisa (1 January 2016). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Feminist History of Philosophy (Spring 2016 ed.). Newman, Barbara (March 2005). "The Heretic Saint: Guglielma of Bohemia, Milan, and Brunate". Church History. Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Society of Church History. Horsley, R. J., & Horsley, R. A. (1986). On the Trail of the" Witches:" Wise Women, Midwives and the European Witch Hunts. Women in German Yearbook: Feminist Studies in German Literature & Culture, 3(1), 1-28. León Hernández, Luz Stella. Françoise Poullain de la Barre:Feminismo y modernidad. Archivado desde el original el 4 de marzo de 2016. Consultado el 27 de agosto de 2012. Macías Jara, M. (2006). Declaración de los derechos de la mujer de la ciudadana de Olimpia de Gouges y declaración de Seneca Falls. Declaración de los derechos de la mujer de la ciudadana de Olimpia de Gouges y declaración de Seneca Falls., 487-491. Wollstonecraft, M. (1995). Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Men and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman and Hints. Cambridge University Press Tristán, F. (1993). Feminismo y utopía:[unión obrera]. Distribuciones Fontamara. de la Cour, F. V. F. (1871). Du féminisme et de l'infantilisme chez les tuberculeux.. (Doctoral dissertation). LatinAmerican Post | María Fernanda Barinas Ortiz ¿Cuántas mujeres ocupan cargos importantes en empresas latinoamericanas? 3 de febrero de 2019 García, Ana Karen. El trabajo doméstico no remunerado equivale a 23% del PIB: Inegi El Economista, 11 de diciembre de 2018. Comisión Nacional para Prevenir y Erradicar la Violencia Contra las Mujeres Brecha salarial, una de las grandes barreras para la igualdad de género 14 de diciembre de 2018 Forbes. México tiene la peor brecha salarial de género de Latinoamérica: informe 22 de julio de 2019 Centro de Información de la ONU. Las mujeres de América Latina necesitan su atención, y el desarrollo es imposible sin ellas, urge ONUmujeres
Mujer, Fe y Violencia de Género

Mujer, Fe y Violencia de Género

Diálogo Social. 16 días de activismo contra la violencia de género. San Juan, Puerto Rico. La población de víctimas de violencia doméstica en comunidades con base de fe es en gran medida mal entendida y desatendida. Pocos clérigos están capacitados para comprender las complejidades de la violencia doméstica, abordar los problemas de seguridad y hacer las remisiones apropiadas. Como resultado, pueden centrarse en la relación más que en el abuso, aconsejar a las víctimas y abusadores juntos, enfocar el abuso como una "cruz para llevar" de la víctima, alentar la sumisión de la esposa y la jefatura masculina, prohibir el divorcio y/o pedir perdón. Al mismo tiempo, los defensores de las víctimas suelen estar mal equipados para comprender los desafíos espirituales y bíblicos muy específicos y las barreras que enfrentan estas víctimas. Los asistentes aprenderán sobre las enseñanzas peligrosas que atrapan y ponen en peligro a las víctimas, adquirirán habilidades para responder a los obstáculos específicos que las víctimas encuentran, y aprenderán consejos para educar y apoyar a las víctimas y sobrevivientes en comunidades con base de fe. PANELISTAS -Dra. Agustina Luvis- Seminario Evangélico de Puerto Rico, Taller Salud -Dra. Glorymar Rivera Báez- ReHace, Iglesia Metodista -Dra. Ilia Marie Vázquez Gascot- Psicología Social Comunitaria UPR-RP MODERADORA -Dra. Ada Alvarez Conde, Activista de Derechos Humanos y Profesora de Comunicaciones Producido por: Ivonne Lozada,
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